Abacus (The Earliest calculator)

Do you know that the Abacus is the earliest calculator?

Once human civilization came into existence, necessity of tools was felt to perform various tasks.

A small frame consists of successive columns with beads and woods was created to perform the arithmetic operations which is known as Abacus. It is a debatable issue that who invented the first Abacus.
It is widely believed that the first Abacus was made by Sumerians. Some scholars say that it was invented in China while some others consider Egyptians as the inventor of the oldest calculating mechanism.
Till the invention of modern calculator, Abacus was used as the calculating tool by the merchants and clerks.

Best Brands of Laptops

During this time of tough competition, everyone is seeking for brand names and the laptop is not an exception.  The following is an overview of some of
the brands of laptop which enjoy a great reputation in the market. 


The search for a laptop which is durable, affordable and trustworthy is sure to take you to Dell.  The company boasts of offering customers a laptop which
would take care of their budget and be with them for a long time.  The company enjoys a strong reputation in the market.  And, customers often hail its
after-sale service.  Just visit the website and choose the category of your product.  Or, you can even give a call in the number: 1-866-930-3355 if you
wish to discuss your difficulty with a sales representative of the company.  The website even offers you a live chat facility.  The company allows you
to extend your warranty through phone or through online chat facility provided in the website. Make sure that you have the service tag (the serial number
of the laptop which is of five to seven characters digit) handy while trying to extend your warranty.  If it happens that you become one among their selected
customers, you can even acquire a special promotional gift card which would offer you an upgrade of up to $50. 


If you are on the lookout of a brand which offers you a combination of variety and the facility to customize your laptop, HP may be the ideal option for
you.  HP laptops are available in eight models.  And, every single model can be customized in accordance with the requirements of its customers in the
US. Ease of operation is generally considered to be the hallmark of HP laptops.  This company too is known for excellence of quality when it comes to after
sale services.  If you wish any technical issue, you can happily visit its website.  On the website, you are offered two options, manually type the product
name or number or allow a tool to do the same for you automatically.  After the identification process, you can opt for the service you require.  HP Total
Care Service takes care of all your warranty requirements.  All you need to do is to explore the company website and get the information you require. 


A brand which allows you to decide the range of price in accordance with your requirements, Samsung would be the best one for you.  Customers report that
these laptops have a user-friendly interface.  And, it is considered to be a brand which returns every single penny you spend for it by allowing you to
enjoy a long time in the company of a fast, reliable laptop.  When it comes to after sales service, reports say that it comes up to International quality
standards.  If you face any difficulty with Samsung’s products, you can give a call to their sales representative.  It also offers you a live chat facility
in the official website of the company.  You may be required to register your product with the company to make sure that you are able to get instant service
or solution for the trouble with the device.  The warranty of your product varies in accordance with the model of laptop you have purchased.  And, an exploration
in the company website would give you a clear idea into the warranty related service.  Just type the company name in any of the popular search engines
and it would come up with the official website of the company of your choice. 


If you are someone who does not mind spending a few extra to get excellence of quality, Apple is sure to be your choice.  The company enjoys a reputation
for offering stylish products which always excel in the matters of reliability and fast performance.  And, getting support for your Mac laptop from Apple
is quite simple.  Just select your product, find the store from where you have purchased the product and give it a call.  The company even offers training
on how to take good care of its products.  The exciting fact is that they allow direct access for the vision impaired or hearing impaired to their customer
service representatives.  A single visit to their website would be enough to get updated with all the support options available at Apple for you.

When it comes to warranty, all products from apple come with a one-year limited warranty. You can extend the warranty up to three years by requesting online
or contacting their sales representatives.  The initial cover-up also includes a ninety days telephone support completely free of cost. 


Even though the company is now a branch of HP, the desire to go for a model ideal for beginners would definitely take you to this brand.  And the great
advantage is that this takes care of your pocket too.  With regard to customer support, Compaq is known for its high standards of after sales service.
You can contact the company online or give it a call in the number:  800-888-0220.  If you opt to submit your request for support online, just visit the
website, choose the category of the task you wish to perform, type the product name and number, type in the difficulty you are facing and submit it.  Every
laptop you purchase from Compaq comes with a one-year warranty from HP.  Since Compaq is a subsidiary of HP, the warranty and all the service procedures
remain the same for both the companies. 

Sony Vaio: 

The model produced by a subsidiary of Soni, this offers great features.  However, you are required to spend more to enjoy what this brand has to offer

The company enjoys a strong reputation in the market for offering excellence of quality when it comes to after sales service.  If you are someone who prefers
explore online support options, the process is quite fast and simple.  Just visit the website, type in your model number and submit it. If you wish, you
can even go for a tool which helps you to do the same.   You have to visit the company website and select the country of residence before trying to contact
its sales representative to get the service you require.  If you are a resident of India, you can contact the sales representative of the company in the
number: 1800-103-7799.  This is a toll-free number allowing you to get in touch with the company all seven days from 9 AM to 8 PM.  The warranty of the
product of your choice depends on its model and configurations. 


A model launched in the market by a reputed Chinese firm, this laptop enjoys immense popularity with excellent performance.  And the company ranks fourth
in the list of the vendors who offer reliable services and products to their customers.  If you wish to talk to the company representative for any difficulty
you face with Lenovo products, you can give a call in the number:  1-866-968-4465.  The company also offers an option to chat online with a representative
if you prefer to contact the company online.  And, to get warranty information on your product, you can either contact your sales representative or submit
the product type and model number online.

Lenovo is a company renowned for its cost-effective options when it comes to extending warranty.  It allows you to extend your warranty up to five years
depending on the model of the laptop you have purchased.  Visit the company’s official website to know more. 


A new comer in the market, Acer is known for producing high-quality, affordable laptops.  If you are searching for a laptop which would be ideal for beginners,
this is sure to be the one you had been waiting for years.  With regard to customer care and after-sales services, Acer Inc. enjoys a great reputation
of coming at par with the high expectations of the customers of today.  The company offers live chat service to those who wish to contact a sales representative
online.  Even services through phone is available.  But, to avail it, you are required to visit their website and enter the SNID number which is printed
near the bar code of your product or its serial number. If you prefer to request for support online, visit the website and select the task you wish to
be performed and then go for the support options provided therein.  By entering your system information, you would be able to download the warranty information
for your laptop.  Even if you are someone who travels a lot, Acer’s International warranty plan offers you to save huge when it comes to regular maintenance
of your system. 


A company with a great reputation for producing excellent-quality net books, ASUSTeK Computer Inc. is a new comer in the field of laptops.  The company
is well known for its high standards of after-sales services.  If you are a resident of India, you can contact the company representative from Monday to
Saturday from 9 AM to 8 AM in the number: 1800-2090365.  If you are someone who prefers online options, the company presents numerous avenues from among
which you can go for the one that fits into your requirements.  The company even offers online chat facilities to those who reside in the US, Canada and

LG X-Note: 

A High-end model from Panasonic, this always remained a favorite of those who are willing to spend for improved performance.  Panasonic enjoys a great
reputation in the market for its high standards with regard to customer care and other after-sales services.  However, if you are not a resident of Japan,
you would have to depend on the store from where you purchased the laptop.  The company does not handle requests for repair and other services from those
outside Japan.  If the store of your choice fails to fulfil your requests, you can happily go for global network of the company.  A query there would come
up with a solution for your trouble within no time. 

It is a fact that the astounding variety may appear to confuse an average consumer.  Allow your requirements and your budget have the final word in the
matter of selection.  Accepting advice from friends and relatives too can go a long way in assisting you to take an informed decision in the matter.

How to mute Jaws with a specific application

JAWS, developed by Freedom Scientific, is the most popular screen reading software among the visually impaired computer users all over the world. Since its first release, the company has made significant changes in terms of making Microsoft Windows operating system and other applications accessible for the people with vision impairment. This post describes how to mute JAWS with a specific application.

Suppose you have one or more software or games with text-to-speech synthesizer and you do not want JAWS to disturb you, you can make JAWS mute permanently with those applications.

1. Open the speech-enabled application which does not require screen reader support.
2. Press Insert+F2 to open the list of JAWS Managers.
3. Locate Settings Center and press entre.
4. In the Search Box, type Sleep Mode. It will open a list.
5. Choose Sleep Mode and enable it by pressing space bar.
6. Go to apply button and activate it by space bar. It will put JAWS sleep permanently with a specific application.

Alternatively, in the Settings Center, arrow down to miscellaneous option and expand it. Look for Sleep Mode and enable it by spacebar and apply.

Now, if you want to undo the changes, go to All Programs Submenu>JAWS (Version) Submenu>Explore JAWS>Explore My Settings. Look for the file created for that application.JCF and delete it. Suppose you have mute JAWS with Notepad. Delete Notepad.jcf.

Note: This is for a specific application and cannot be applied as default setting.

Online Work from Home

The tough competition of our times has made job security a matter of great concern. And we are left with no other option, but to go for additional income opportunities powerful enough to grow into a good source of ever-increasing revenue. Here comes online work from home to our assistance. In fact, many of the giants in the corporate sector have started encouraging working from home due to the cost effectiveness it offers. Even the millionaires the world around have started recognizing this huge source of constant revenue. And this can be attributed to the growth of Internet as a great treasure of income opportunities for those who do not wish to leave the comforts of their homes.
The following is an overview of some of the great opportunities if you are someone looking for a regular income without having to leave your home.

Paid surveys

For a beginner searching for online work from home opportunities, the ideal option to try out is signing up for paid surveys. Reports say that they are fast and easy. Furthermore, there are hundreds if not thousands of people who earn a good income expressing their opinion on the products or services large companies have to offer for consumers. And the fact is that they are even willing to pay huge to know what you think about their services. You do not need any specific training to get paid filling up online surveys. However, the selection has to be careful. Go for companies which enjoy a good reputation in the market. And, be picky when it comes to giving out confidential information.

get paid to websites

What if you are offered an opportunity to get paid while others fill up the surveys and get excellent offers free of cost? Remember, the people would be willing to do whatever they can to get free offers. And the offers may vary from gift vouchers to great software capable of making their day-to-day life easier and more comfortable. This is an ideal way to earn passive income. And the great advantage is that you don’t have to spend even a single penny to set up websites like these. Make sure that you do your homework before making any commitment.

Affiliate marketing

Another online work from home opportunity is affiliate marketing. Here, you agree to sell the products or services of the company or companies of your choice. If you are patient and dedicated enough, you can even make it a full-time income offering you the freedom to be your own boss.
You can try these websites.



Freelance writing jobs

If you feel that you are good in conveying your message to a worldwide audience, writing article holds the power to make you rich if you are willing to put a bit extra effort. Since Internet lives on content, everyone needs content. And websites are popping up in millions on a daily basis. Most of the time, people would be having their own tasks to get completed. And, they do not have time to write good and informational content for their websites. This is where you have to be of assistance. If you prove yourself to be a reliable and good writer, you would not have any difficulty in finding someone who needs your service.
Go ahead, surf the Internet and harness the potential of this huge source of income lying scattered all around!

Windows 7 Activation Error Code: 0xC004C008. Description: ” The activation server determined that the specified product key could not be used.”

    You purchase a genuine Windows 7 operating system installation disk from a retailer. It is wonderful to have a genuine product key to activate your operating system. It keeps you away from the world of piracy. If you buy a genuine windows operating system, you can download and install regular updates from Microsoft to keep your computer running smoothly.
    But after activating windows several times using your product key, you come across annoying error: “error code: 0xC004C008” The activation server determined that the specified product key could not be used to activate this version of windows.”

    This error can occur due to following reasons:

    1. Your computer’s hardware might have changed.
    2. Windows 7 was installed several times on the same computer.
    3. Your Windows 7 product key was originally used on other computer.
    4. You have already installed Windows on maximum number of computers.

    In this situation, you can activate your windows through the telephone.

    Follow the steps below:

    1. Go to Start Menu Search.
    2. In the edit box, type slui.exe 4 and press enter.
    3. Select nearest location and click next.
    4. Note the Installation ID and call to one of the given numbers.
    5. Follow the instructions and provide your Installation ID as prompted. If any error occurs, your call will be forwarded to a Customer Care Representative. He will guide you further in the activation process.
    6. Provide the Installation ID and get the Confirmation ID.
    7. Type the Confirmation ID in the boxes and click next. Your windows 7 will be activated.

Pay per Click


Pay per click, generally known as PPC is an effective Internet marketing strategy.  It allows you to attract highly targeted traffic to your website.  In PPC, the advertiser has to pay only if the ad is clicked on the search pages of the service provider.  Unfortunately, most of the businesses tend to stay away from this highly effective means of traffic which can be converted into revenue due to the existence of numerous misconceptions.  But, the fact is that the task of setting up a PPC account is quite easy compared to creating other online advertising arrangements.  If you are the owner of a company trying to earn a brand name for yourself, the following guidelines would definitely be of assistance to you.


How to optimize your PPC campaign so as to get the maximum out of it


Designing a website is quite easy.  But, the job of attracting targeted traffic is something which demands patient and consistent efforts.  And, optimizing your PPC campaign is definitely capable of taking your business to the next level.  It just requires a basic understanding of how a PPC ad campaign is properly managed.  Here are some strategies to help you in this direction.


  1. Try to have an understanding of “keyword match types”:

Even though it may appear to be basic, this is a must-have if you wish to take the maximum advantage of Google Ad words.  For Google, there are three match types, broad, exact keyword match and phrase match.   If you set up your ad campaign asking Google to make use of broad keyword match type for your ad, it may go broad, even beyond what you expect.  This would create a situation where your ad may get displayed even when the users are not searching for what you have to offer them.  This would result in unwanted click throughs which is sure to be a strain on your budget.  To avoid this situation, go for exact keyword matches.  Doing this would help you to get rid of unwanted impressions.  Your ad would be displayed only when users search for the services or products you or your competition has to offer them.


  1. Conduct a negative keyword research regularly:


This can be regarded as a safety measure.  By doing this, you would be able to know the negative variations of your choice keywords.  For instance, if you are someone selling children’s uniforms, a research like this would allow you to understand and avoid the variations like used or free uniforms for children.


  1. Try to build tight key-word groups for your PPC campaign:



This is an area where most of the Internet marketers lag behind resulting in miserable failure in their PPC ad campaigns.  Remember, an ad-campaign with too many keywords is sure to be a disaster.  You should understand that Google Ad words would display only one ad for a group of ads.  Opting for highly concentrated keywords would allow you to prepare effective ads for your campaign.


Besides, make it a point that you regularly monitor the progress of your ad campaign.  If budget allows you, trying out innovative ad copies and landing pages is a surefire way to success in your attempts to take your business to the next level.

Social Media Marketing


Social media marketing is that form of Internet marketing which takes the assistance of social networking websites to reach out to customers.  This allows a company to personalize its marketing campaign. If you are someone trying to establish an online presence, you can combine the variety of social media marketing strategies or stick to just one method, based on the size of your business.

While reading an article or blog, if you happen to see a “share it” vigit at the end of it, that is the simplest mode of social media marketing.  This kind of automated marketing strategy allows you to understand what customers feel about the product or service you talk about.  Asking customers to vote for the article or blog too can create a positive impact on your efforts to create a name for yourself in the market.

The following is an overview of the essential elements of social media marketing.


  1. The Buzz:

A great platform to personalize your marketing efforts, this allows you to post blogs or news about the product or service you sell or promote.  It can be a blog post, a video or a tweet.  However, make sure that it is interesting and has the potential to captivate those who happen to read it.  If the post is interesting, it gets retweeted and even without your knowing, the campaign spreads far and wide.  Creating a buzz can be considered to be a vital component of social media marketing.  Here, the readers become advertisers.



  1. Fan pages:


A fan page is an excellent platform where you can build a brand name for yourself.  This allows you to promote your business in numerous social networking platforms available at present.  Allow your potential customers to create a fan page and talk about whatever they are interested in.  This is an excellent way to know your customers and modify your products and services in accordance with their preferences and requirements.  Remember, even a single customer holds the power to determine the rise or fall of your business.


  1.  Get involved with your potential customers:

Getting involved in conversations is the next aspect which should deserve your utmost attention.  Allow the consumers to talk about the brand or brands they find ideal for them.  Make sure that their privacy is given due respect.  No confidential information should be leaked out at any cost.  This, combined with other strategies like advertising your brand creates a situation where more and more visitors are able to see what you have to offer them.  The resulting discussion centered round your brand is definitely the most effective advertising.


Social media marketing services:



If yours is a small business with no funds to appoint someone to take care of the online presence of your company, you can happily go for social media marketing services.  However, you have to be well aware of your audience and should have an idea into the medium it may generally prefer.  Even though the abundance of them may appear to be confusing, analyzing your requirements should be enough to assist you to take an informed decision.

Remember, social media is just a small part of the huge slice of Internet marketing.  If you wish to survive in this tough competition, you should be willing to be lead by your potential customers.





Search Engine Marketing


Search engine marketing, generally known as SEM is a sequence of strategies used to increase the visibility of a website on search engines.  On the whole, these strategies can be classified into two main categories, attracting traffic through paid advertising and doing the same through efforts aimed at free search engine optimization.  Both the methods attract highly targeted traffic to your website.  However, the second option allows you to be on the first few pages of the search engines for a long time. At present, content is king and search engines look for nothing, but quality content to determine website rankings.  If you are someone planning to take advantage of search engine marketing to expand your business, the following overview is sure to be of advantage to you.


  1. Conduct a thorough research of the market



Everyone is concerned about creating a search-engine friendly website.  But, you should understand that visitors to your website are not search engines, but people. This implies that if you want visitors to your website, you have to decide your target audience.  You should also be able to decide on what you are planning to offer your customers.  A proper combination of both the information would enable you to design a website which combines ease of navigation and personalized content.  If you do this well, search engines would be automatically attracted to your website.


  1. Keyword research:



The target market determined, you can move on to the next step, keyword research.  Try and understand what your competitors have to offer to your potential customers.  This would help you to determine how your product or service would be designed in such a way as to beat your competitors. Go for those keywords which are capable of highlighting what you have to offer your customers.  Recommendations from your friends too can go a long way to assist you in the field.  Besides, the numerous keyword tracking tools available too can be of great advantage to you.



  1. Writing for search engines:


With the relevant keywords at hand, you can go forward with the website content.  Decide a theme for every single page of your website.  If you feel that flash, Java and frames are must-haves for your website, make sure that there is an HTML alternative for the site.  And, Make sure that there is no excessive repetition of a single keyword in the content of your website.  In the instance of one single keyword being relevant to more than one page, go for variations of the same.  Take care to ensure that the font and the color scheme go well with the background of the website.  Remember, people want a website which is easy to read and understand.


  1. Search-engine friendly design:

With informative content, you should not have any difficulty in designing a search-engine friendly website.  However, make sure that your main keyword appears in the title of every page of your website.  If you feel that you are not an expert in the field, you can happily go for the numerous website design companies available out there.  Going for professional assistance is always highly recommended.  It allows you to stay away from the dangers you may commit if you do the job on your own.

Search Engine Optimization


Search engine optimization, to be simple is the strategy of attracting visitors to a website.  Fondly known as SEO, it implies that you are optimizing your website in such a way as to make it easily navigable by the generally popular search engines like Google, Bing, Yahoo etc.  For instance, if you want to get information on the furniture stores from where you can do online shopping, the first option you try out is sure to be a search engine.  And, there is no doubt to the fact that there are thousands of stores who allows you to shop online.  Presenting all of them on the first pages is simply out of the question.  For Google, the general norm is presenting up to ten websites on its first page.   And it is this strategy, a combination of numerous factors that which enables a website to rank high in search result pages.  The following is an overview of the different factors involved in the ongoing process, search engine optimization.


Search engine optimization falls under two main classifications:  Those which are done outside the website to increase the popularity of a website and those which are done inside a website.

The efforts taken outside the website to increase the ranking of a website include making use of the programs like Google Ad sense and integration with social networking sites.  However, these tend to have a temporary effect on your website.  If you fail to pay for the advertising programs offered by search engines, your ad stops getting displayed on their result pages.  And your popularity on micro blogging websites depends on your efforts on sharing updated and relevant information in the field of your choice.

The efforts to optimize your website for search engines by making required modifications to the site fall into the second category.  And this includes determining appropriate formatting for your website and making sure that all the meta tags and HTML tags are arranged properly.

However, all teseh constitute just a small part of the ongoing process, search engine optimization. The inevitable ingredient of a website irrespective of the field of your choice is good and informative content.  It has to be unique and regularly updated.  This holds the power to determine your existence in the worldwide web.  You have to make sure that the keywords related to your niche are inserted in appropriate places.  A simple search online would help you to have an idea into the competition each keyword in your choice niche.  Go for those words which you feel the users would use if they do a search online for the services you or your competitor would be offering.




Another factor which should deserve utmost consideration in your attempts to optimize your website for the search engines is earning links from other websites.  This is of great significance if you wish to be on the first few pages of Google, the giant in the industry.

SEO is a dynamic process which demands an awareness of the changing algorithms of the search engines.  And as a webmaster, it is highly recommended that you entrust the task of optimizing your website to someone who is a professional in the field.



Internet Marketing


If you are someone of the opinion that setting up a website would take care of your Internet marketing efforts by itself, you are entirely wrong.  In fact, that is just the first step in this direction.  Internet marketing is a continuous process where you have to employ all the strategies available to advertise your business to attract traffic to your website.  And your success as a business owner depends on your ability to convert this traffic into revenue.  Your website should be optimized with high-quality and updated information.  And you should be able to earn a reputation in such a way as readers would be happy to spend for the products you recommend.  However, this is just one aspect of Internet marketing.  Following are some avenues you can explore.


Face book:



With a membership base of up to 1000 million, Face book is a social networking platform no Internet marketer can ignore.  And research shows that this single website consumes up to eight hours of an average person’s time.  Being one among them is a surefire way to your success as an entrepreneur.


 Increase your page ranking in Google and other search engines:


Even though people spend their time on social networking platforms, they always explore the search engines for something or the other.  A considerable number of explorers among them would definitely be those who prefer online shopping.  Ignoring this vast majority would definitely be a setback to your marketing campaign.



Your own locality:


Even though people have become more environment-conscious due to the spreading fear of global warming, the advertising strategies like distributing fliers describing your business still hold great potential for any business.


 Email marketing:



A powerful weapon in the hands of a business owner, email marketing offers you the option to personalize your marketing campaign.  This is also an effective way to follow up with your customers.  If your website is rich with accurate and updated information, visitors would definitely be happy to go for the product or services you offer.  You can take assistance of the numerous auto responders available online to send emails automatically to your potential customers.



Pay Per Click advertising:



If used properly, Pay Per Click or (PPC) is a powerful Internet marketing tool.  Here, you have to pay only if your ad is clicked by the visitor to the website where you are posting your ads.  If yours is a small business, this might appear to be a huge strain on your budget.  However, if budget allows you, it is highly recommended that you should harness the potential of this powerful source of revenue.  PPC allows you to attract that kind of traffic to your website which can be easily converted into revenue.  However, be watchful in your selection of websites.  The advertising programs offered by the great search engines like Google and Yahoo are generally considered to be of great advantage to any Internet marketer.  Make sure that you analyze the performance of your website on a regular basis.

The numerous keyword analysis tools available online can be of great assistance in the matter.

Whatever is your option, if you wish to survive in this tough competition, it is a must that you take advantage of anyone or a combination of all the Internet marketing strategies.